Scottish Racism in Football

Scotland Women’s Football Team, 2017 
‘While my teammates were travelling back to the athletes’ village in London, I was on a plane home to Scotland. No disrespect to the Millennium Stadium…but playing Brazil at Wembley is every footballer's dream.’ Those were the words of Nigerian football player Ifeoma Nnenna Dieke[1] in the wake of her leg injury after playing against Cameroon in the 2012 London Olympics. Born in the USA, but raised in the Scottish town of Cumbernauld since age three, she was eligible to lend her footballing talents at the international level to Nigeria, the United States or Scotland, but chose to represent the latter from 2004 to 2017. Her 117 caps over those 13 years outweigh the 14 caps of Ghanaian-English footballer Nigel Quashie[2] for the Scotland men’s team from 2004 to 2006, 4 caps of Nigerian-Scottish Chris Iwelumo[3] from 2008 to 2010, 16 caps of Matthew Phillips[4] from 2012 to 2019 or more recently Liam Jordan Palmer’s[5] 5 caps last year, all qualifying through their Scottish grandparentage. These Black players make for a striking contrast amongst the backdrop of their light-skinned teammates as they all strive for the same goal of bringing victorious glory back home to Scotland, on the surface demonstrating a racial harmony across the region as they support their side. So it might come as some surprise that there are numerous instances of racism in Scottish football.

Racism Experienced by Players: 1980s-1990s

Mark Walters in action against Celtic 
Nigerian-Jamaican midfielder Mark Walters, the first ever Black footballer in a Scottish Premiership team, played for Glasgow Rangers in the 1980s. His first outing on the 2nd January 1988 was an away game with Glasgow rivals Celtic. Any derby game is bound to be contentious, but this was taken to new heights from Mark Walters’ first touch of the ball when the Celtic fans made monkey noises and gestures towards him.[6] Every subsequent ball pass would elicit the same dehumanising conduct, as well as bananas and other fruit being hurled at him, to the point that the match was stopped to clear the pitch. Such vile behaviour was shocking to see in the derby away game, but perhaps even more shocking to see at a home game with Morton on the 9th January 1988 from Rangers own fans, apparently deciding the colour of Mark Walter’s skin overrode the colours of his allegiance. Though this concept was nothing new considering white Scottish sports fans had a long history of racially insulting their fellow fans of colour. Ghanaian-Scottish comedian Bruce Fummey recalls being a young teenager in the late 70s/early 80s and getting on a train in Perth, heading to a Scotland rugby match. When the train alighted at Fife, some big heavy white men got on, saw the 14-year-old child dressed in the Scottish side’s colours, then one looked to his mate to say, ‘it must be a bad day in Scottish sport when we need a [expletive] to support us.’[7]

Such open racial slights received no condemnation from the train passengers or indeed the wider Scottish community, which undoubtedly galvanised an even more visceral attack on Mark Walters during the 16th January 1988 away game against Heart of Midlothian (Hearts) in Edinburgh where, in addition to the dehumanising chants, gestures and symbolisms by throwing bananas and other fruits, racist fans also threw darts and even a pig’s leg.[8] The Black player’s presence on the Scottish Premiership team even apparently received
Celtic Player Paul Elliott, 1989
international disapproval as he recalled having letters from US race hate group the Ku Klux Klan telling him, ‘where I should go and what I should be doing with myself.’ But he was soon not the sole target of the racial vitriol after convincing his good friend Paul Elliott to make the career move to also join the Scottish Premiership. After being signed by Celtic, on the 23rd September 1989, the Jamaican defender made his debut against Motherwell and also received booing, monkey chants and all the other racial abuse directed at him from the stands. But an added twistedness was getting it from his own team members in the dressing room.[9] He recalled once requesting cornflakes for breakfast when a white teammate substituted the ‘corn’ for a racial slur quipping, ‘let’s get some c**nflakes for Paul.’ After a few weeks of the persistent racism, Elliott apparently called Walters to lament on his move up north, ‘I had been stitched up, given the abuse I was receiving.’ When moving to English Premier league side Chelsea 2 years later, he said Scottish racism had factored into his decision making.

Both these Black footballers receiving racial abuse whilst playing for Scottish sides were raised in England, as was Richard Cadette[10] who played as a Falkirk forward in the early 1990s. But this wasn’t the case for Jamaican-Scottish Kevin Harper[11] who grew up in Glasgow’s Possilpark area. Signed by Edinburgh’s Hibernian (Hibs) and playing
Hibs player Kevin Harper in action against Hearts 
professionally by age 17, it was undoubtedly an exciting time for the young footballer. Yet, like his dark-skinned predecessors, his game was also marred by racist abuse not just coming from the terraces, but from the pitch itself. On 16th November 1996 during an Edinburgh derby between Hibs and Hearts, Kevin Harper was racially abused by then Hearts skipper Gary MacKay.[12] Kevin decided to take a stand and reported the abuse to the Scottish Football Association (SFA), upon which MacKay denied any racism. The SFA upheld MacKay’s denial and no action was taken in response to the complaint.[13] This was the repetitive outcome of Kevin’s other protests of the constant racial abuse directed towards him: nothing ever happened and it was swept under the carpet. In fact, Kevin felt his persistence on the matter cost him a fully developed international career. Despite his excellent skills on display through his 1998 move to English Premiership team Derby, and later playing 42 games in Portsmouth’s English Championship winning season, he was barely called up to play for the Scottish national team, in comparison to certain players only playing 4 games and being called to represent Scotland. He would ask himself, ‘Playing in a team of that calibre and not getting a Scotland cap, I have to ask myself, “Was it because of the Gary Mackay thing and was it because I was so outspoken”?’ In fact, he was only selected for one full Scotland national game in a Euro 2004 qualifier, but was never actually called on to play during the match.[14]

Yes, with regards to the racism these early Black footballers (and fans) were subjected to, the football bodies were apparently adamant not in silencing the racism, but the players experiencing the racism, effectively asserting that the dark-skinned victims were the problem rather than the light-skinned attackers. As we look to current times, has anything changed?

Racism Experienced by Players: 2010s-present day

Jumping forward to the current generation of Black professional footballers in Scotland, and we’ll see that Jamaican winger Scott Sinclair[15] has been part of the Celtic line up since 2016. After 27 years, was he to fare better racially than Paul Elliott’s 1989 debut at the club? The answer could be seen during the Scottish League Betfred Cup semi-final match
Celtic player Scott Sinclair in action against Aberdeen 
between Celtic and Hearts at Edinburgh’s Murrayfield stadium on 28th October 2018. During the game, Hearts supporter Craig Tibbetts sang ‘Yellow Submarine’ with the lyrics changed to racially abuse Scott Sinclair and reference bananas.[16] Similar racism came 2 months later in a video uploaded to social media of Celtic’s 2nd December 2018 Cup final against Aberdeen at Hamden Park. As Scott was taking a penalty shot, an Aberdeen fan could be heard from behind the camera shouting ‘Ya f***ing black b*****d![17] This was despite having Black players like defender Max Lowe[18] & right back Shay Logan[19] on their own team during that same 
Hibs player Martin Bartley in action against Hearts 
 game.After the video received some criticism, the response of some was to repackage the racial slur as an insult towards the black uniform of white referee Andrew Dallas who awarded the penalty. For me however, it demonstrates a new way to bypass the issue of racism: using an ‘ambiguity’ defence. The following year, similar video evidence was found online targeting Hibs midfielder Marvin Bartley [20] On the 6th April 2019 as he was warming up for the Edinburgh derby match, a Hearts fan recorded him whilst repeatedly saying the n-word and shared the footage captioned ‘Black c**t’ amongst friends.[21] During the match itself, there was more racist chanting and a coconut was thrown onto the pitch. Later that year, similar video evidence was caught during a Scottish Championship derby match at Tannadice Park on 27th December 2019 when a Dundee United fan racially abused opposing team Dundee FC striker Kane Hemmings.[22] There was certainly no ambiguity for the racism caught in those instances.

Also unambiguous was the footage of Motherwell defender Christian Mbulu[23] being racially abused by 20 Hearts supporters[24] during the 8th December 2018 game at Tynecastle. Former Hearts forwardChristian Nadé[25] could himself relate as he recalls another Edinburgh derby game a racist Hib supporter near the pitch said, You are a Black so and so. You are lazy, go back to your own country!’[26] The comments were similar to what Aberdeen defender Shay Logan reported being shouted from the stands from Glasgow Celtic fans[27] in May 2018, and again 2 years later online from Glasgow Rangers fans.[28] An Instagram account called ‘rangerspics’ sent Shay a meme of a Black boy, with the
Aberdeen player Shay Logan in action against Rangers 
surrounding words: ‘Don't care, plus you're black.’ Then another user sent another meme pointing outwards and saying, ‘Mummy, why is that man made of chocolate?’ Shay chose to point out the fan’s hypocrisy in his reply writing, ‘When your captain's BLACK [James Tavernier], your top goal scorer is BLACK [Alfredo Morelos], your best centre half is BLACK [Conner Goldson], you have eight plus BLACK players in your team, but you pick on the BLACK plumber.’ He then quipped, ‘You [know] what they say once you go BLACK’. Shay then shared the racist troll photo who brazenly made no attempt to hide his identity, apparently confident that his behaviour would provoke no blowback.

Rangers player Alfredo Morelos in action against Celtic 
One of those star Black players for Rangers, Colombian Alfredo Morelos[29]has also received widely reported abuse. Named as Ladbroke’s Premiership player of the month, September 2019[30], his undeniable skills might have further stoked the ire of Hearts fans during an away game in October 2019 as he celebrated a goal in front of them as they hurled racist insults.[31] It was followed by further abuse from Celtic supporters[32] at a Premiership game in December 2019 when racist chants were directed at Alfredo. Again, like with Shay Logan the abuse went beyond the stadium, this time with the Scottish press ‘trivialising’ the racism with the Colombian being dismissively labelled, ‘waster, a cheat, an angry brat’. In fact, Davie Provan, former Celtic player turned football pundit brazenly tweeted, ‘if you can’t take the vitriol, you are in the wrong city.’[33] Ranger’s manager Steven Gerrard voiced concern about retaining his star player as he approaches his 3rd year in Glasgow. Like Paul Elliot before him, after all the racism experienced both on and off the pitch, will he choose to take his winning streak to other premier leagues?[34] It would be an understandable decision as, just like the previous generation of Black footballers in the 1980s/90s, the wider emphasis is apparently not to silence the racists, but the players who are the target of racism, effectively asserting that the dark-skinned victims are the problem rather than the light-skinned attackers.

He like many Black players had apparently fallen foul for not towing the ‘shut up and take it’ line, leading to a new wave of abuse. This is bad enough when challenging fan behaviour, but it takes on a particular potency when reporting racial abuse from other players. On 13 September 2014, Bulgarian winger for Celtic Aleksandar Tonev made racist comments to Aberdeen defender Shay Logan during a premiership game.[35] Unlike with Kevin Harper’s case in 1998, after the SFA was informed, a tribunal investigated the claim and handed Tonev a 7-match ban, which was still upheld after an appeal. In the wake of the verdict, Shay Logan now says he always expects racism from Celtic supporters, and was not surprised at the May 2018 abuse he reported at Celtic Park. And what of the women’s premiership league? With very few female BAME players in Scotland, there has been
Footballer Renée Hector and racist Sophie Jones 
minimal reporting on this. When we look to England however, there have been similar problems with retribution. During a January 2019 championship match Sheffield United's Sophie Jones made monkey noises are Tottenham defender Renée Hector as she was taking a corner kick.[36] The claim was investigated by the Football Association regulatory commission who handed Jones a 5-match ban and £200 fine. This caused a foray of online abuse towards Renée with accusations of ‘playing the race card’, being sent pictures of baby gorillas and insulting her appearance. So just like Shay Logan, she received further racial abuse for having reported the racial abuse against her.

A similar scenario occurred at the international level of England’s women’s football with Nigerian striker Ẹniọlá Aluko. Her talents on the field were noticed early, making her senior debut for the national side dubbed ‘the lionesses’ aged just 17 in 2004. She went on to earn 102 caps and was the 2016-2017 season’s top goal scorer. Yet from January 2014, like Paul Elliot receiving abuse from his own side, she noticed racist comments towards her and other players of colour from her own team manager Mark Sampson and goalkeeping coach Lee Kendall who in March 2015 openly branded Ẹniọlá as ‘lazy as fuck’ during a Cyprus Cup winning game with Finland where she scores one of 3 goals(!)[37] Other ignorant behaviour
England player Ẹniọlá Aluko in action against Germany 
like Kendal putting on a mocking Caribbean accent when addressing her occurred, as well as a slew of demoralising comments from Sampson saying she was ‘unreliable’, ‘lacked stamina’, ‘selfish’ and a ‘pain in the arse’. This was on the back of an interaction before the November 2014 England vs Germany friendly at Wembley Stadium. He enquired if Ẹniọlá would have any family there and she replied some were coming from Nigeria. To this he responded,
 Nigeria? Make sure they don’t bring ebola with them.[38]

In May 2016, she highlighted her negative experiences under Sampson’s management to a supposedly confidential Football Association ‘culture review’; however, less than a fortnight later Sampson told her she was being dropped from the England team for ‘un-lioness behaviour’ in clearly what was a retaliatory move. Two consecutive grievances Ẹniọlá submitted against the decision went in Sampson’s favour, though the second one yielded a £80,000 out-of-court settlement.[39] The Professional Footballers’ Association trade union stated those investigations had been a sham, not designed to establish the truth, but intended to protect Mark Sampson’.[40] The story leaked to right-wing paper the Daily Mail
Scotland player Ifeoma Dieke with her former teammates
where they made no reference to racism, instead echoing Sampson’s denigrating stance that Ẹniọlá was ‘problematic’ and her fellow lionesses didn’t like her. So just like Alfredo Morales, she received further abuse from the media for having reported the racial abuse against her. The FA’s smear campaign against Ẹniọlá was finally exposed after a third investigation in October 2017 acknowledged Sampson had indeed been racially abusive to Ẹniọlá and another Black player, Drew Spence[41]Considering the 102-capped Nigerian striker for England’s experience, it makes me speculate whether the 117-capped Nigerian striker for Scotland, Ifeoma Dieke, has also ever felt pressured to overlook any racism she might have encountered over the course of her career...

In any case, how can we root out this racism from football either south or north of the border? What if some of the football managers themselves were Black? Well, turns out they too have issues with racism…

Racism Experienced by Managers

Very often in football, the team manager role is filled by a former footballer. In his autobiography ‘Wingin’ It’, former Rangers player Mark Walters writes about retiring from football in 2002 and earning all the qualifications to start a second career in coaching. However, despite having ‘all the badges and every award going’, he frustratingly never landed a top coaching job. He lamented on never getting the opportunity to manage young players at or near the professional level[42] he had played who could really benefit from his guidance. Instead he watched as those coaching positions often went to people who had
Kevin Harper as Albion Rovers manager
never played professionally
. This is particularly shocking when we realise the ridiculously low ratio of Black ex-players to Black coaches[43]but those statistics would not surprise former Hibs player Kevin Harper who also tried to pursue a coaching career after retiring from the pitch in 2009. In Scotland, the only BAME managers had been Dave Smith at Montrose, John Barnes at Celtic and Claude Anelka at Raith Rovers, and Maácio Máximo at Livingston before a 15-year gap when Kevin staring managing Albion Rovers in November 2019.[44] Within that time, only he’d applied for 30-40 coaching jobs, but was never invited for an interview. His whistleblowing history with the SFA who ‘swept racism under the carpet’ initially played a part in why he felt he couldn’t land a coaching position[45], with many BAME coaches thinking ‘What’s the point?’ Now that he has the position though, he recognises the extra attention and scrutiny he draws as a manager of colour. Alex Dyer expressed a similar sentiment when he became manager of Kilmarnock a month later in December 2019, recognising he has to work harder in coaching because he’s Black.

With all these issues to contend with, it would be understandable if BAME footballers were put off from playing in Scotland, finding another way to ‘play Brazil at Wembley’ as per Ifeoma Dieke’s dream.

Course of Action

So now we know of the racism against Black people within Scottish football, what can be done about it? Let’s break it down step by step.

Peer condemnation: Football fans have to become more proactive when they witness racist behaviour in the terraces or see it online. Christian Nadé is very insistent on this strategy saying, ‘the people next to [the racists] need to point fingers. The supporters have to say, “You can’t do that here”[46] There is nothing to be ashamed of denouncing this kind of thing. It has no place in football and people should not be embarrassed about taking a stand.’ This was the case with Shay Logan’s ‘rangerspics’ abuser who was publicly shamed after the footballer shared the racist memes on his social media page.[47] In the wake of the exposure, the racist gave a ‘grovelling apology’, saying he was ‘full of remorse’ and ‘very embarrassed’. In response, the Aberdeen player voiced his hope that the Rangers fan would ‘become a better person’ and learn from his mistake.

Former Scotland Manager Craig Brown 
Football officials condemnation: In addition to fans, football officials themselves should come out against racist behaviour, as should regulatory bodies. Ẹniọlá Aluko proposes that the clubs of offending fans be punished in such a way that their cash flow is affected.[48] This could mean receiving substantial fines, that they are deducted 3 points in the league tables, or the racist affiliate team must vacate the pitch thus forfeiting the game. Such punishments already exist in regards to other infractions like financial fair play, corruption and anti-doping, so applying similar penalties to racism will force clubs to start taking more decisive action. In the meantime, there has indeed been individual condemnation as was the case when Ian Maxwell, SFA Chief Executive, blasted the abuse received by Shay Logan as well as Alfredo Morelos.[49] He joined the Rangers Manager Steven Gerrard sentiment that it was ‘bang out of order’, saying it was ‘fundamentally wrong’ and voiced the need to work with clubs and other partners to eradicate it. Similar feeling was shared when former Scotland manager and Dundee FC player Craig Brown learned of the abuse against Kane Hemmings.[50] Clearly shocked by the incident, he said, ‘It is quite despicable…I genuinely think the need to nail the idiot who apparently shouted the racist remark and anyone else who either shouts or writes anything like that.’ He then added that such ignorance was an educational issue and suggested anti-racism teaching should be part of the Scottish curriculum. Dundee FC Supporters Association chairman Kenny Ross also called for a lifetime ban on the offender entering all football grounds in the region. He emphasised the seriousness of the offence and that the racist’s details should be passed to the police, echoing Ian Maxwell recognition it was a hate crime.

Legal condemnation: Legal proceeding have indeed been brought against some offenders such as some of the racist Hearts supporters that abused Christian Mbulu as well as Marvin Bartley. Additionally, some Celtic supporters including a 12-year-old boy who chanted racist songs at Alfredo Morelos were charged for the offence.[51] Superintendent Mark Sutherland insisted that, ‘abuse of any form is completely unacceptable and Police Scotland will continue to rigorously investigate any reports of abuse we receive and bring those responsible before the relevant authorities.’ The legal process followed through to its conclusion when racist Craig Tibbetts, abuser of Celtic player Scott Sinclair, was found guilty of charges including chanting offensive remarks and assault[52] at Edinburgh Sheriff Court in August 2019. Though Christian Nadé was dubious of such convictions saying, ‘taking them to court won’t solve anything, all it will do is provoke more rage in the hearts of these people.’[53] He then echoed Kenny Ross’ suggestion that the main deterrent for others is to issue a ban from football. Luckily the judge in Craig Tibbetts case integrated this into his sentence of 200 hours unpaid community work as well as a 2-year ban from attending football matchesThis was a welcomed contrast to an opposite outcome when mixed-race Black-Irish Kilmarnock footballer Josh Magennis was racially abused Feb 2016. Whilst playing an away game against Hearts at Tyneside stadium, home fan David Pugh called him an ‘Irish p***k’ from the stands. Whilst Pugh was attested and charged under the 2012 Offensive Behaviour at Football and Threatening Communications Act after admitting the offence, during his August 2016 hearing also at Edinburgh Sherriff Court he was given an absolute discharge by Sheriff JP Scott, meaning the xenophobe faced no punishment and didn’t even receive a criminal record. Going forward, there indeed needs to be better follow through on abuse related convictions to send a clear message such behaviour won’t be tolerated.

Anti-racist ‘Respect Our Players’ campaign 
Media condemnation: From the start of professional BAME players in the Scottish Premier League, the media machine has been slow to openly rebuke racist abuse. But this wasn’t the case with BBC Sportscene presenter Archie Macpherson who staunchly derided the Hearts fans attack on Mark Walters on air.[54] His January 1988 comments were in stark contrast to football pundit Davie Provan’s February 2020 against Alfredo Morelos protests of his mistreatment. This would suggest a step backwards in the media attitude towards racism, except for the September 2019 launch of the Scottish Sun newspaper’s Respect Our Players scheme to counter the continuous attacks on Scottish Premier Football League (SPFL) players.[55] The newspaper’s anti-racism and anti-sectarian campaign, backed by the many clubs and ex-players amongst others, is calling on fan support to call out offenders at games or online, and report the abuse accordingly.

Rangers squad supporting ‘Show Racism the Red Card’

Anti-racism initiatives
: Scotland’s first such homegrown scheme to promote equality and diversity in football joins other UK initiatives like Kick It Out[56] charity from 1993 which former Celtic player Paul Elliot has done a lot of work with; Show Racism the Red Card (SRtRC)[57] from 1996 with awareness raising events like ‘Fortnight of Action’; and the wider Football Against Racism in Europe (FARE)[58] network from 1999. This could then help to counter discrimination and abuse, which will in turn nurture respect for BAME players, managers and fans in and out of the stadiums.

Empowering Scottish BAME Youth

  Newtongrange Star player Kader Diaby
with his father Abou Diaby
Whilst these initiatives will help in the fight to kick racism out of Scottish football, there is a still a long way to go to convince BAME parents that football matches are a safe place for their kids to be, either in the stands as a fan or on the pitch as a player. With regards to fans, many have voiced their worry of the colour of their children’s skin overriding the colours of their allegiance, as was the case with Bruce Fummey’s experience as a 14-year-old. With regards to players, this worry was more recently realised when 17-year-old Ivorian footballer Kader Diaby was racially abused at an Under-20 match.[59] During the 20th December 2019 game with BSC Glasgow, the Edinburgh-based Newtongrange Star player heard a sarcastic voice from the touchline say, ‘You’re a good player, you monkey’, apparently from the rival coach(!) Understandably very upset, the teenager informed the referee who dismissively told him to get on with the game. After informing his coach, his teammates walked off the pitch in solidarity, then a statement was given to the police and an SFA inquiry launched. However, Kader’s father Abou has voiced dissatisfaction at the sluggish pace of the investigations, saying not only have the police done nothing since taking the statement, but neither has the SFA. The experience led the young footballer to consider giving up the game he loved. 

Africa Challenge Scotland event 
It is incidents like these that led parents to set up organisations to promote football and other sports amongst the young Scottish BAME community. This includes African Challenge Scotland[60], set up in 2016 to promote an ‘active lifestyle among Africans and other ethnic groups’ throughout the region, encouraging community cohesion through sports. It also includes the Scottish Ethnic Minority Sports Association (SEMSA)[61], set up in 1990 to facilitate the previous lack of culturally sensitive sporting opportunities to the BAME communities of Glasgow. In these safe spaces, they can practice their sporting passions, but with the ongoing racial hostility from the wider community endured by Black professional footballers, will it translate to a sporting career, which might then lead to a coaching career? Well, Kevin Harper recognises they might be inspired by his career trajectory, saying ‘If I do well, it might help others, but I don't think me being at Albion Rovers or keeping them up is going to open the floodgates for Black and ethnic managers to take over, so to speak. That said, if one person wants to become a coach or a manager because of me, that's perfect.’[62]

Yes, Scotland has a long way to go before resolving its issues with racism in football and sports in general, and only with a concerted effort will progress be made.

~ by Abiọ́dún Ọlátòkunbọ̀ Abdul

[4] Matthew Phillips wiki page

[6] Mark Walters recalls racism on Rangers debut, 30 years on (28th Dec, 2017)

[8] Mark Walters: ‘It wasn’t just fruit – people threw darts and a pig’s leg’ (16th Oct 2018)

[9] Ex-Celtic ace Paul Elliott reveals he was told to eat ‘coonflakes’ in disgusting racist abuse in 1980s, but Chelsea star is proud to have stood up to bigotry (
[11]  Kevin Harper wiki page
[12] If there’s no racism in Scottish football why am I still remembered as the wee black guy from Glasgow who played for Hibs (18 November 2012)

[13] Accentuate the negative; The head-in-the-sand attitude of Scottish (14 Jan 2001)

[14] If there’s no racism in Scottish football, why am I still remembered as the wee black guy from Glasgow who played for Hibs (18 November 2012)
[15] Scott Sinclair wiki page
[16] Hearts thug sang racist song about Celtic star Scott Sinclair then threw coins at fellow Jambos (26 SEP 2019)
[18] Max Lowe ‘one of Aberdeen’s top men’ despite cup final defeat to Celtic at Hampden Park (3 Dec 2018)
[19] Scottish League Cup Final: Celtic 1- Aberdeen 0
[20] Marvin Bartley wiki page
[23] Christian Mbulu wiki page
[24] Hearts striker embarrassed by racist abuse (re Christian Mbulu, 12 Dec 2018)
[25] Christian Nadé wiki page
[26] I’d love to sit down with those who shouted at me, time to take a stand (11 Dec 2018)
[27] Aberdeen’s Shay Logan expects racial abuse from Celtic fans (

[28] Aberdeen ace Shay Logan calls out vile racist abuse from Rangers fan on social media ()

[29] Alfredo Morelos wiki page
[30] Neil Lennon: No place for racism in football or any walk of life (18 Oct 2019)
[31] Alfredo Morelos: Hearts investigate claims of racism towards Rangers striker (20 Oct 2019)
[32] Boy, 12, charged in connection with football match racism (Tuesday, 11 February 2020)
[34] Morelos abuse shows racism still a problem in Scotland, says Gerrard (Tue 4 Feb 2020)

[35] Celtic: Aleksandar Tonev loses appeal against racial abuse ban (16 December 2014)

[36] Renee Hector 'sank into depression' after online abuse following racism case (14 August 2019)

[37] Eni Aluko: ‘We all have moments in life when our morals are called into question’ (24 August 2019)

[38] Racist Bullying Goes On In Women's Football Too, Says England Player (22 August 2017)

[39] Eni Aluko accuses England manager Mark Sampson of ‘racist’ Ebola remark

[41] Drew Spence wiki page
[42] Mark Walters recalls racism on Rangers debut, 30 years on (28 Dec 2017)

[43] Mark Walters: ‘It wasn’t just fruit – people threw darts and a pig’s leg’ (16 Oct 2018)

[44] Kevin Harper: Albion Rovers manager is Scotland's first black boss in 15 years (22 Nov 2019)

[45] If there’s no racism in Scottish football, why am I still remembered as the wee black guy from Glasgow who played for Hibs (18 Nov 2012)
[46] I’d love to sit down with those who shouted at me, time to take a stand (11 Dec 2018)
[47] Shay Logan racist abuse condemned by SFA chief as Ian Maxwell hits out at 'unacceptable and ridiculous' hatred (5 FEB 2020)
[48] Ẹniọlá Aluko: 'Racism in Football Needs Harsher Punishments' | The Russell Howard Hour (21st Feb 2020)
[49] Shay Logan racist abuse condemned by SFA chief as Ian Maxwell hits out at 'unacceptable and ridiculous' hatred (5 FEB 2020)
[52] Hearts thug sang racist song about Celtic star Scott Sinclair then threw coins at fellow Jambos (26 Sept 2019)

[54] Mark Walters recalls racism on Rangers debut, 30 years on (28 Dec 2017)

[55] Aberdeen ace Shay Logan calls out vile racist abuse from Rangers fan on social media ()

[59] Dad slams probe into alleged racist slur against Scots teen footballer during youth game (9 Feb 2020)

[61] Scottish Ethnic Minority Sports Association (SEMSA)

[62] Kevin Harper: Albion Rovers manager is Scotland's first black boss in 15 years (22 Nov 2019)

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